Nuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals

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Related Great science fiction film stories Rs. World birds Rs. Jumbo Science Activities Rs. Engineering design methods Rs. Description Nuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals provides insight into the remarkable mechanisms of nuclear import and export. This book covers a range of topics from the nuclear pore structure, to nuclear import and export of macromolecules in plant and animal cells. In addition, the book covers the special cases of nuclear import of Agrobacterium T-DNA during plant genetic transformation, nuclear import and export of animal viruses, and nuclear intake of foreign DNA.

A chapter on research methods to study nuclear transport concludes the book. Write Your Own Review. Submit Review. Tags Add Your Tags:. Cheap Books, Fantastic Choice Browse through hundreds of thousands of titles today. Global Books. Facebook Page Reviews View All. Connect With Us. Active Transport, Cell Nucleus--physiol- ogy. QU 55 N ] I.

Tzfira, Tzvi. Citovsky, Vitaly. Series: Molecular biology intelligence unit Unnumbered QH N Structure of the Nuclear Pore Integral Proteins of the Nuclear Pore Membrane Subnuclear Trafficking and the Nuclear Matrix Nuclear Import and Export Signals Nuclear Import of Plant Proteins Hicks Protein Import in Animals and Yeast Soussi T.

DNA-binding properties of the major structural protein of simian virus J Virol ; Efficient expression of miniprep plasmid DNA after needle micro-injection into somatic cells. Biotechniques ; Transfection by cationic liposomes using simultaneous single cell measurements of plasmid delivery and transgene expression. J Biol Chem ; DNA injection into single cells of intact mice. Hum Gene Ther ; Cell-specific nuclear import of plasmid DNA. Gene Ther ; Baculovirus infection of nondividing mammalian cells: mechanisms of entry and nuclear transport of capsids.

HIV-1 Vpr interacts with the nuclear transport pathway to promote macrophage infection. Genes Dev ; The nuclear localization signal of the matrix pro- tein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 allows the establishment of infection in macroph- ages and quiescent T lymphocytes. Whittaker GR, Helenius A. Nuclear import and export of viruses and virus genomes. Virology ; Wildeman AG. Regulation of SV40 early gene expression.

Mechanism of Nuclear Transport - RAN GTPase Cycle

Biochem Cell Biol ; Nuclear import of plasmid DNA in digitonin-permeabilized cells requires both cytoplasmic factors and specific DNA sequences. Long-term persistence of plasmid DNA and foreign gene expression in mouse muscle. Hum Mol Genetics ; Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo. Science ; Antisense c-myc oligonucleotide cellular uptake and activity.

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Antisense Res Dev ; A domain of SV40 capsid polypeptide Vp1 that specifies migration into the cell nucleus. EMBO J ; The intranuclear localization of simian virus 40 polypep- tides Vp2 and Vp3 depends on a specific amino acid sequence. Mechanism of oligonucleotide uptake by cells: involve- ment of specific receptors?

Yamada M, Kasamatsu H. Role of nuclear pore complex in simian virus 40 nuclear targeting. The herpes simplex virus 1 UL34 protein interacts with a cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain and targets nuclear membrane.

J Virol ; — Optimization of plasmid vectors for high-level expres- sion in lung epithelial cells. Endothelial cell-specific plasmid nuclear import. Mol Biol Cell ; 10Sa. Cellular and molecular barriers to gene transfer by a cationic lipid. Gene chemistry: functionally and conformationally intact fluorescent plasmid DNA. Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei by proteins originating from a plant pathogenic bacterium.

Two distinct functions of vird2 and vire2 proteins. Plant Cell ; The transfer of DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plants: a feast of fundamental insights. Plant J ; Zupan JR, Citovsky V. Zambryski P.

Nuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals

Nuclear Export: Shuttling across the Nuclear Pore Hanover and Dona C. Jans and Jade K. Forwood The Transport Process Nuclear Import and Export of Mammalian Viruses Nuclear Import of DNA Dean and Kerimi E. Research Methodologies for the Investigation of Cell Nucleus Glenn R. Chapter 10 Chapter 6 Mikiko C. Siomi Dona C.

Animals, plants and agricultural products

Katherine L. The wide range of functions of the cell nucleus and its molecular components include packaging and maintaining the integrity of the cellular genetic material, generating messages to the protein synthesis machin- ery of the cell, assembling ribosome precursors and delivering them to the cell cytoplasm, and many more. As a complex machine, the nucleus maintains a constant two-way flow of information with the surrounding cytoplasm, such as import and export of ions, small and large proteins and protein complexes, and ribonucleoprotein particles.

These transport processes occur through the nuclear pore complexes which represent the selective gateways through the nuclear envelope, a major barrier that isolates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.

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More than one hundred and seventy years have passed since Robert Brown discovered the cell nucleus using his simple light microscope, and, since then, remarkable progress has been made, both technically and conceptually, in study- ing and understanding the structure and function of the cell nucleus. In these days of modern cellular and molecular biology, we are capable of employing a vast array of sophisticated technologies and approaches to image the nucleus and its substructures, to isolate and functionally characterize its molecular com- ponents, and to modify the nuclear genetic material.

With the resulting knowl- edge, we have come to appreciate the complexity of the nuclear structure and function. In particular, the ability of various types of molecules to be actively transported through the well-guarded nuclear pore complexes is extremely in- triguing.

The chapters of this book provide insights into the intricate mecha- nisms of nuclear import and export. To better understand these processes, one must first elucidate the organization of the physical gateways into the nucleus. Thus, we begin this book with a detailed description of the nuclear pore struc- ture and composition. The signal sequences that specify nuclear import and export of proteins are discussed next followed by eight chapters, each dedicated to a specific aspect of the nuclear import and export in plant and animal cells.

Among these, special chapters are dedicated to nuclear import of Agrobacterium T-DNA during plant genetic transformation, nuclear import and export of ani- mal viruses, and nuclear intake of foreign DNA. A chapter on research methods to study nuclear transport concludes the book.

The result is a compact book which we hope the readers will find useful as a guide and a reference source for diverse aspects of nuclear import and export in plant and animal systems. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all the authors for their outstanding contributions, to the staff of Eurekah. Cynthia Conomos for assistance in all technical aspects of the chapter productions. As the repository of the genome, it both encloses the chromatin and regulates its accessibility.

It is also the site of nucleic acid synthesis, including replica- tion of DNA, transcription and editing of messenger RNA, synthesis of ribosomal RNAs, and assembly of ribosomal subunits. By contrast, the cytoplasm is the site of protein synthesis, where functional ribosomes translate mRNA into polypeptides. The nuclear envelope defines the border between these two distinct biochemical worlds. The nuclear pores or nuclear pore complexes, NPCs serve as guardians of this border, acting as the gateway for molecular ex- change between the two major cellular compartments.

They are deeply integrated to the physi- ological function of every cellular pathway involving communication between enzymatic, sig- naling, or regulatory activities on one hand, and gene expression on the other. The nuclear pore complex is also a fascinating molecular machine, facilitating the passage of specific macromol- ecules in one direction while ferrying others in the opposite sense.

The nuclear envelope NE defines the boundary between nucleus and cytoplasm. It is formed by two juxtaposed lipid bilayer membranes, the outer one of which is contiguous with the endoplasmic reticulum. The outer and inner lipid bilayers are also connected con- tinuously through the nuclear pores themselves, though their protein compositions differ.

A matrix of filaments underlies the inner nuclear membrane, providing mechanical support and anchoring sites for the enclosed chromatin. In animal cells these filaments are composed largely of lamins, similar in structure to intermediate filaments. Aside from a few known exceptions associated with viral infection, all molecular exchange across the nuclear envelope takes place via the nuclear pores, whose number ranges from many tens to several thousand per nucleus.

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Thus RNAs and ribosomal subunits are exported to the cytoplasm, while pro- teins needed in the nucleus must be imported, and often reexported when their task there is done. Each pore is a large multi-protein complex, consisting of 30 or more distinct protein components in multiple copies. Its total molecular weight has been measured at MDa for vertebrate cells, and about 60 MDa for yeast. Individual nuclear pores are thought to mediate traffic in both directions.

The functional task of the nuclear pore is to regulate entry to, and exit from, the nucleus. Specific pathways are discussed at greater depth in other chapters of this book. A degree of consensus has emerged in describing nuclear transport as a receptor-mediated translocation process.