Studies in Perception and Action VI: v. 6

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Crucianelli H. Maximillian H. Iriye Z. Abdulkarim S. O'Kane D. Radziun R. Kondo S. Coppi V. Trifonova A.

Aristotle’s Psychology

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Multisensory correlations—not tactile expectations—determine the sense of body ownership. PLoS One 13 6 :e Full-body ownership illusion elicited by visuo-vestibular integration. Cerebral Cortex 29 3 Body ownership shapes self-orientation perception. Sci Rep. Auditory cues influence the rubber-hand illusion. Implicit and explicit changes in body satisfaction evoked by body size illusions: Implications for eating disorder vulnerability in women.


  1. Session 1. Organizational theories.
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  4. Gregory (1970) and Top Down Processing Theory?
  5. Session 1. Organizational theories.
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Motor imagery involves predicting the sensory consequences of the imagined movement. Nature Communications 9 1 Short-term visual deprivation boots the flexibility of body representation. Scientific Reports 8: Psychological Science Tool use changes the spatial extension of the magnetic touch illusion. J Exp Psychol Gen. Recalibration of hand position sense during unconscious active and passive movement. Experimental Brain Research 2 Body ownership promotes visual awareness. Body ownership determines the attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations.

PNAS 31 Sensorimotor predictions and tool use: Hand-held tools attenuate self-touch.

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Cognition Cerebral Cortex 27 7 Scientific Reports Goal-directed processing of self-relevant information is associated with less cognitive interference than the processing of information about other people. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Illusory obesity triggers body dissatisfaction responses in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex. Cerebral Cortex 26 12 Illusions of having small or large invisible bodies influence visual perception of object size.

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The magnetic touch illusion: A perceptual correlate of visuo-tactile integration in peripersonal space. Preferential processing of self-relevant stimuli occurs mainly at the perceptual and conscious stages of information processing.

Gregory (1970) and Top Down Processing Theory

Consciousness and Cognition No causal link between changes in hand position sense and feeling of limb ownership in the rubber hand illusion. Atten Percept Psychophys. Owning the body in the mirror: The effect of visual perspective and mirror view on the full-body illusion. Decoding illusory self-location from activity in the human hippocampus.

Front Hum Neurosci. Posterior cingulate cortex integrates the senses of self-location and body ownership. Current Biology 25 11 Illusory ownership of an invisible body reduces autonomic and subjective social anxiety responses. Develop the organization 3. Set individual objectives 4. Periodic appraisal and feedback 5. Organizational theories which explain the organization and its structure can be broadly classified as classical or modern.

Classical organization theory Taylor's scientific management approach Weber's bureaucratic approach Administrative theory. Classical organization theories Taylor, ; Weber, ; Fayol, deal with the formal organization and concepts to increase management efficiency. Taylor presented scientific management concepts, Weber gave the bureaucratic approach, and Fayol developed the administrative theory of the organization.

They all contributed significantly to the development of classical organization theory. Taylor's scientific management approach The scientific management approach developed by Taylor is based on the concept of planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. Weber's theory is infirm on account of dysfunctions Hicks and Gullett, such as rigidity, impersonality, displacement of objectives, limitation of categorization, self-perpetuation and empire building, cost of controls, and anxiety to improve status.

Administrative theory The elements of administrative theory Fayol, relate to accomplishment of tasks, and include principles of management, the concept of line and staff, committees and functions of management. They should also comply with the rules and regulations of the organization.

Gibson “Purple Perils”

An employee requires some time to get used to new work and do it well. Union is strength. Line personnel are those who work directly to achieve organizational goals. Staff personnel include those whose basic function is to support and help line personnel. Members from the same or different hierarchical levels from different departments can form committees around a common goal. They can be given different functions, such as managerial, decision making, recommending or policy formulation. Committees can take diverse forms, such as boards, commissions, task groups or ad hoc committees.

Committees can be further divided according to their functions. In agricultural research organizations, committees are formed for research, staff evaluation or even allocation of land for experiments. Gulick and Urwick also considered organization in terms of management functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Neoclassical theory Principles of the neoclassical approach.

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MSc Psychological Research Methods (Perception and Action)

Neoclassical theorists recognized the importance of individual or group behaviour and emphasized human relations. Based on the Hawthorne experiments, the neoclassical approach emphasized social or human relationships among the operators, researchers and supervisors Roethlisberger and Dickson, It was argued that these considerations were more consequential in determining productivity than mere changes in working conditions. Productivity increases were achieved as a result of high morale, which was influenced by the amount of individual, personal and intimate attention workers received.

Principles of the neoclassical approach The classical approach stressed the formal organization. It was mechanistic and ignored major aspects of human nature. Individuals differ from each other in pursuing these desires. Thus, an individual should be recognized as interacting with social and economic factors. The concept of 'group' and its synergistic benefits were considered important. This was a new form of management to ensure increases in productivity. Note the difference between Taylor's 'scientific management' - which focuses on work - and the neoclassical approach - which focuses on workers.

Modern theories The systems approach Socio-technical approach The contingency or situational approach.

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Modern theories tend to be based on the concept that the organization is a system which has to adapt to changes in its environment. In modern theory, an organization is defined as a designed and structured process in which individuals interact for objectives Hicks and Gullet, The contemporary approach to the organization is multidisciplinary, as many scientists from different fields have contributed to its development, emphasizing the dynamic nature of communication and importance of integration of individual and organizational interests.

These were subsequently re-emphasized by Bernard who gave the first modern and comprehensive view of management. Subsequently, conclusions on systems control gave insight into application of cybernetics. The operation research approach was suggested in It utilized the contributions of several disciplines in problem solving. Von Bertalanffy made a significant contribution by suggesting a component of general systems theory which is accepted as a basic premise of modern theory.

Evidence to Support Gregory's Theory

The systems approach The systems approach views organization as a system composed of interconnected - and thus mutually dependent - sub-systems. These sub-systems can have their own sub-sub-systems. A system can be perceived as composed of some components, functions and processes Albrecht, The interaction between them is contingent upon the linking processes, which consist of communication, balance and decision making. Decisions may be to produce or participate in the system.


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